The introduction of Participatory Forestry Management (PFM) in Kenya from 1997 has led to the formation of community-based organizations which have come to be referred to as Community Forest Associations (CFAs). Most of the CFAs are preparing to enter into forest management agreements with the Kenya Forest Service (KFS). This will confer management roles to the community with the KFS retaining the forest resource ownership right and the right to withdraw the agreement in total or part. The CFAs are formed by individual members who join by paying a prescribed membership fee. The CFA structures are rather diverse although this is being harmonized. In forests where PFM is 10 years old, the CFAs are forming confederates, which are being referred to as Umbrella CFAs. The study involved the collection of data of the CFAs that had been formed at least 10 years. Information was obtained from the results of the Action Research in Poverty and Participation (ARPIP) program carried out in Arabuko–Sokoke Forest.
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