In the last three decades, tree planting and tree resource conservation have been promoted in Northern Ghana in response to forest and land degradation. This study assessed local communities perception and factors influencing participation in tree planting programmes in Northern Ghana, focusing on Ghana government initiatives executed between the period of 1980 to 1995. These initiatives comprised protection of communal forests, management of natural regeneration and tree planting in agroforestry systems. Data was collected through structured questionnaire from 1000 respondents in selected communities in the ,orthern, Upper East and Upper West Regions of the country and analyzed descriptively. The results indicate that communities perceived tree planting as fairly important social programme with 74% of respondents advocating for it. Free supply of seedlings, provision of food aid and free inputs supply were the dominant motivating factors influencing participation in the planting programme. Poor extension services and lack of strong efficient organization were the major constraints
affecting people’s participation. Institutional capacity building in support of extension services at the community level is a prerequisite for effective and sustainable plantation development programme.